Quality of arabic coffee under different processing systems, drying methods and altitudes
The quality of coffee is one of the most important requirements in the commercialization of the product, and the post-harvest stage is decisive in the production of excellent coffees. The region of Mutum, MG, Brazil, is predominantly coffee-growing, with high potential for the production of specialty coffees. Due to the social and economic importance of coffee production in the Matas de Minas region, research has been demanded with the aim of providing technological information that provides improvements in quality and consequent price aggregation of the coffee bag. Among the several factors that may affect coffee quality are the processing system, the drying method and the altitude. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of Arabica coffee at different altitudes, submitted to different processing systems and drying methods. The work was conducted at the Cabeceira do Imbiruçu, in a randomized complete block design,with treatments arranged in a scheme comprising sub-subdivided plots (2 x 2 x 2), with four replications. In the plots, the two altitudes (850 and 1050 m), in the subplotsthe two processingsystems (dry (natural) and wet (peeled cherry)) and in the sub-subplotstwo drying methods (cement and suspended yard, both covered). Sensory and electrical conductivity analyzes were performed. The fruits of coffee trees located at altitudes of 1050 m have sensory attributes superior to those of altitudes of 850 m. The best results of the coffee flavor and aroma sensory attributes were obtained in the wet processing system when compared to a dry (natural) processing system. The electrical conductivity of the coffee beans obtained in the wet processing system was lower than that obtained in the dry processing system (natural), which gives a better beverage quality. Drying methods in suspended yard and cement yard, both with plastic cover and if technically conducted, do not influence the sensory characteristics of the Arabica coffee.
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