Adjuvants plus phytosanitary products and the effects on the physical-chemical properties of the spray liquids
The frequent tank mixing of phytosanitary products, adjuvants, and foliar fertilizers highlights the lack of information which sustains decisions about what products can be mixed for spray application. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides in combination with some adjuvants on the Brazilian market. The experimental design was completely randomized and spray mixes of the phytosanitary products: fungicide (azoxystrobin+benzovindiflupir), herbicide (diamônio salt of N-(phosponomethyl)) or insecticide (fenpropathrin) were evaluated in combination with adjuvants (mineral oil base, foliar fertilizer or lecithin + propionic acid), and in two application rates (95 and 52 L ha-1); all with four replications. Surface tension, electrical conductivity, pH, dynamic viscosity and density of spray mixes were evaluated. The adjuvants presented characteristics capable of significantly altering the physicochemical properties of the phytosanitary spray mixes, and thus, alter the biological effectiveness and efficiency of the spray applications. However, its effects are also dependent on the phytosanitary product added to the spray mix, which makes general recommendations a difficult task. The greatest pH reduction, as well as the greatest increase in electrical conductivity, were caused by the adjuvant lecithin + propionic acid. All phytosanitary products and adjuvants studied, associated or not, resulted in a reduction in the surface tension of the spray mix in relation to water. The magnitude of change of density and dynamic viscosity promoted by adjuvants was lower than the other characteristics evaluated.