Intestinal parasitism and related risk factors for primary school students in João Pessoa, northeast Brazil
The goal of the present study was to determine both prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a single primary school located in João Pessoa, from February to August in 2016.Â The students were selected from the age group of 5-16 years. Of the school total of 341 students, 150 fecal specimens (from participants) were collected and were evaluated by three methods: Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HPJ); Rugai; and the Paratest® Kit. A questionnaire concerning socio-demographic, environmental and behavioral variables was also applied. A logistic regression model was used to explain the occurrence of intestinal parasitism and the associated risk factors. The prevalence was 38.7% of students, with positive samples being more prevalent in the male students (47.0%). The most common parasite was Giardia lamblia 13 (14.8%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 8 (9%), Enterobius vermicularis 5 (5.7%), Strongyloides stercolaris 2 (2.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.3%) and Trichuris trichiura 2 (2.3%). Among the enterocommensals, the most frequent was Endolimax nana 36 (40.9%) followed by Entamoeba coli 20 (22.7%). The variables that presented statistical significance (p-value<0.05) ) together with the Odds Ratio (OR) were: gender (female) (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.98), family allowance participant (yes) (OR=4.4; 95% CI, 1.84-10.66), number of rooms in the residence (OR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.13-10.64), family nucleus (OR=7.0; 95% CI, 1.46-12.43), fruit and vegetable hygiene (OR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.23-3.36), use of anthelmintic (OR= 0.02; 95% CI, 0.001-0.30) and detection of worms (OR=25.0; 95% CI, 20.6-30.10). Diseases caused by protozoa were more prevalent. The analyzed risk factors demonstrate that disease transmission happens through differing routes. Thus, appropriate health intervention strategies should be implemented to reduce the burden of intestinal parasites for school students and their families.
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