Essential oils of Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk and their major compounds show differentiated activities against three phytopathogenic fungi
The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oils of chemotypes of Myrcia lundiana and their major compounds on the fungi Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/FID. For the evaluation of the antifungal activity, the essential oils and the major compounds were tested at the concentration of 0.1 mL/L until the fungicidal effect was detected. The major compounds detected in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole, isopulegol, and citral. The chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) provided 100% mycelial growth inhibition for the fungus F. pallidoroseum from the concentration of 1.1 mL/L (minimum inhibition concentration - MIC). For chemotype (MLU-022), the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 0.3 mL/L. For F. solani, the essential oils of the chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) presented MIC at concentrations of 7.0 and 5.0 mL/L, respectively. The essential oil of the chemotype (MLU-022) presented MFC of 0.6 mL/L. Different MIC was observed for the three studied chemotypes for the fungus C. musae, ranging between 0.4 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-005); 0.5 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-022); and 0.7 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-019). The best MFC was observed for the chemotype (MLU-005) (0.5 mL/L). The major compounds tested separately presented better MIC values when compared with their chemotypes, except for the compound 1,8-cineole, which presented lower mycelial growth inhibition for the three fungi tested, suggesting that the chemical profile or the presence of some other compound of the essential oil may inhibit the growth of the three fungi studied. The compound isopulegol provided lower MFC for the fungus C. musae (0.4517 mL/L) when compared with the fungi F. pallidoroseum and F. solani, (MFC of 0.4927 mL/L). The compound citral provided a lower MFC on the fungus C. musae (0.1668 mL/L) in relation to the other fungi tested. The essential oils of the chemotypes of M. lundiana and their major compounds showed potential to control the studied phytopathogens and can be an alternative for agriculture for presenting an inhibitory and fungicidal effect against these organisms at lower concentrations.
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