Antifungal potential of cashew nut shell liquid in the control of plant pathogens
Extracted from the fruit of Anacardium occidentale L., Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) is a phenolic lipid that has potential biological use. Conventional pesticides are increasingly being replaced by natural products because of the impact that their mismanagement can have on human health and the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicidal potential effect of CNSL on the fungi Colletotrichum gloesporioides and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in particular its use in reducing negative impacts on fruit production. Chemical and physical tests were conducted to determine features of the sample, such as pH, electrical conductivity and solubility, and to measure its anacardic acid content. In vitro and in vivo tests were also conducted to evaluate the inhibition of mycelial growth on papaya fruit, the identification of volatile components and the inhibition of spore production. CNSL had the highest fungicidal potential for both fungi in vitro at a concentration of 320 Âµg mL-1, and the same concentration was also maximal for sporulation inhibition in both fungi. In the in vivo tests the protective effect of CNSL was higher for C. gloesporioides fungus, whereas its curative effect was higher for L. theobromae. It was found that the substance with fungicidal potential was non-volatile and that the presence of the pathogens altered the chemical properties of the fruit.
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