A essencialidade da autoeficácia na aprendizagem autorregulada

Abílio Afonso Lourenço, Maria Olímpia Almeida Paiva

Resumo


* Doutor em Psicologia da Educação pela Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. Professor titular do Agrupamento de Escolas Alexandre Herculano e investigador do CIPE – Centro de Investigação em Psicologia e Educação do AEAH, Porto, Portugal.

** Doutora em Psicologia da Educação pela Universidade do Minho, Braga. Professora titular do Agrupamento de Escolas Alexandre Herculano e investigador do CIPE – Centro de Investigação em Psicologia e Educação do AEAH, Porto, Portugal.

A essencialidade da autoeficácia para a aprendizagem autorregulada

Resumo: No contexto educativo, a perspetiva sociocognitiva concebe a autoeficácia para a aprendizagem como a percepção do aluno acerca das suas capacidades para aprender ou concretizar comportamentos escolares a um nível ambicionado, interpretando-a como uma componente fundamental no processo autorregulatório. Suportado nos racionais teóricos da autoeficácia de Bandura e nos processos autorregulatórios da aprendizagem de Zimmerman, este texto tem como objetivo fazer uma abordagem teórica e de reflexão sobre a importância das percepções de autoeficácia dos alunos na autorregulação das suas aprendizagens. Estas teorias realçam que os alunos, que normalmente consideram que são capazes de executar as atividades escolares sugeridas, usam mais estratégias cognitivas e metacognitivas no seu desempenho escolar, definem metas mais desafiantes, persistem mais na tarefa e alcançam níveis mais altos de realização. São apresentadas algumas sugestões para a prática pedagógica.

Palavras-chave: Autoeficácia Autorregulação da aprendizagem Rendimento escolar.

The essentiality of self-efficacy in self-regulated learning

Abstract: In a school content, the socio-cognitive perspective frames self-efficacy as the students' perception on both their learning skills and behavior concepts at the desired level within a specific range unraveling it as a fundamental component in a self-regulated procedure. Based both on the Bandura's theoretical self-efficacy reasoning and Zimmerman's self-regulated learning procedures, the current text has as its purpose a theoretical and reflexive approach on the students' self-efficacy apprehension upon learning self-regulation. The underlying theoretical information to both patterns emphasizes the role of students who usually consider themselves to be able to carry out the implied schooling activities. These students are acknowledged for using more cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies in their school performance together with a definition of more challenging goals. Some suggestions for pedagogical practice are presented.

Keywords: Self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning. School performance.

La esencialidad de la auto-eficacia en el aprendizaje auto-regulado

Resumen: En el contexto educativo, la perspectiva socio-cognitiva concibe la auto-eficacia como la percepción de los estudiantes acerca de sus capacidades para aprender o poner en práctica comportamientos escolares, el nivel de ambición en un campo específico, interpretándolo como un componente fundamental en el proceso de auto-regulación. Con el respaldo de la teoría de la auto-eficacia de Bandura y de los procesos auto-regulatorios de aprendizaje de Zimmerman, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo hacer una aproximación teórica y la reflexión sobre la importancia de la percepción de auto-eficacia de los alumnos en la autorregulación de su aprendizaje. La literatura que subyace en los dos modelos teóricos hace hincapié en que los estudiantes suelen considerar que no es capaz de realizar las actividades escolares sugeridas, utilizan estrategias cognitivas y meta-cognitivas más en su desempeño escolar, establecer metas más desafiantes, persiste más tiempo en la tarea cuando se enfrentan dificultades y alcanzar mayores niveles de logro. Se presentan algunas sugerencias para la practica pedagógica.

Palabras clave: auto-eficacia; auto-regulación del aprendizaje; rendimiento escolar.

Data de registro: 04/11/2014

Data de aceite: 17/02/2016

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Autoeficácia Autorregulação da aprendizagem Rendimento escolar.

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